Herbal Definitions

Herb Glossary with Terms and Definitions

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Terminology. “Understanding terms or words commonly used in herbal literature provides a basic foundation for people new to herbs and reinforces the basics for those with some experience with herbal medicine.” [1]


abiotic: nonliving

aetheroleum: refers to the essential or volatile oil as a distinct aromatic product obtained from the plant

abortifacient: inducing abortion

adaptogen:a class of herbs that enable the body to adapt more efficiently to stress and to maintain homeostasis through stressful shifts in the environment

adjuvant: serving to help or assist

allopathy: also known as “conventional medicine” in Western societies. Allopathy focuses on treating the symptoms of diseases primarily through prescription drugs. This approach utilizes a process of reductionism -focusing on the symptoms exhibited in a part of the organism rather than focusing on the organism as a whole.

alterative: a substance that gently increases elimination of metabolic wastes through the major eliminatory organs (lungs, lymph, skin, kidney, liver, and bowel) thus improving the body’s abilities to heal and function in a healthy manner[2]

alternative medicine A variety of therapeutic or preventive health-care practices that are not typically taught or practiced in traditional medical communities and offer treatments that differ from standard medical practice. Homeopathy, herbal medicine, and acupuncture are types of alternative medicine. If a non-mainstream practice is used in place of conventional medicine, it is considered? “alternative.”

analeptic: restorative or stimulating effect on central nervous system

analgesic: relieves pain

aphrodisiac: reduces capacity for sexual arousal

anesthetic induces loss of sensation or consciousness due to the depression of nerve function

anhidrotic a substance that suppresses sweating

anodyne: In medicine before the 20th century, an anodyne was a drug that was believed to relieve or soothe pain by lessening the sensitivity of the brain or nervous system. It was essentially an analgesic. Some definitions restrict the term to topical medications, including herbal simples such as onion, lily, root of mallows, leaves of violet, and elderberry. Other definitions include ingested narcotics, hypnotics, and opiates

anthelmintic: expelling or destroying parasitic worms (as tapeworms) especially of the intestine also called vermifugal

anthocyanin A blue, purple or red accessory pigment found in plants. Anthocyanins are water-soluble glucosides that are not directly involved in photosynthesis and can mask the green of chlorophyll, giving the plant a red-purple color

anti-anemic: preventing or curing anemia

anti-bacterial: destroying or stopping the growth of bacteria

anti-bilious: easing stomach stress

anti-catarrhal: helps dissolve and prevent the formation of mucus and inflammation of mucus membranes

anti-depressant: therapy that acts to prevent, cure, or alleviate mental depression

anti-diabetic: preventing or relieving diabetes

anti-diarrhetic: substances use to prevent or treat diarrhea

anti-emetic: stopping vomiting

anti-fungal: destroying or inhibiting the growth of fungus

anti-hemorrhagic: controlling hemorrhaging or bleeding

anti-infectious: counteracting infection

anti-inflammatory: controlling inflammation, a reaction to injury or infection

anti-lithic: preventing the formation of calculi or promoting their dissolution

anti-malarial: preventing or relieving malaria

anti-microbial: destructive to microbes

anti-nauseant: destructive to microbes

anti-oxidant: prevents or inhibits oxidation

anti-periodic: preventing regular recurrence of the symptoms of a disease, as in malaria

anti-pruritic: preventing or relieving itching anti-pruritic herbs include calendula, oats, licorice, and chickweed

anti-pyretic: agent that reduces fever (febrifuge)

anti-rheumatic: easing pain of rheumatism, inflammation of joints and muscles

anti-scorbutic: effective in the prevention or relief of scurvy

antiseptic: agent used to produce asepsis and to remove pus, blood, etc.

anti-spasmodic: calming nervous and muscular spasms or convulsions

anti-helmintic: expelling or destroying parasitic worms (as tapeworms) especially of the intestine -also called vermifugal

anti-tussive: herbs that act on the central and peripheral nervous systems to suppress the cough reflex. Because the cough reflex is necessary for clearing the upper respiratory tract of obstructive secretions, anti-tussives should not be used with a productive cough.

anti-viral: opposing the action of a virus

anti-ovulatory: inhibiting or preventing ovulation

anxiolytic anxiety relieving

aperient: a very mild laxative

aperitive: stimulating the appetite for food

aphrodisiac: substance increasing capacity for sexual arousal

aquaretic: an agent that increases urine flow, without affecting electrolyte balance

asepsis: sterile, a condition free of germs, infection, and any form of life

astringent: an astringent substance is a chemical compound that tends to shrink or constrict body tissues (astringent herbs include Lady’s Mantle, geranium, goldenrod, goldenseal, meadowsweet, nettle, rosemary, sage, and yarrow)

atonic: lacking muscular tone

ayurvedic medicine: Literally meaning the “science of life.” A 5,000 year old system of medicine originating in India that combines natural therapies with a highly personalized, holistic approach to the treatment of disease


balsamum: refers to a solution of resin and volatile oil usually produced by special cells in some plants

binomial: The two part scientific Latin name used to identify plants. The first name is the genus and is a general name that may be shared by a number of related plants. The second is the species name, which refers to the name that is specific to that individual plant (i.e., Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia)

  • In commercial terms herb generally refers to plants used for culinary purposes. Additionally the terminology differentiates temperate zone plants from tropical and subtropical plants (i.e., spices).
  • In horticultural terms herb refers to “herbaceous,” which describes the appearance of the plant (i.e., a non-woody, vascular plant).
  • In taxonomic terms herb generally refers to the above ground parts or the aerial parts (i.e., the flower, leaf, and stem).
  • In terms of herbal medicine herb refers to plants used in various forms or preparations, valued for their therapeutic benefits, and sold as dietary supplements in the U.S. marketplace

bitter: stimulates appetite or digestive function Bitter herbs include artichoke, chamomile, hops, dandelion

botanicals: product made from part of a plant, as from roots, leaves, bark, or berries

bulbus: refers to the bulb or an underground bud (specialized stem structure) of a plant, from which both a shoot and roots may extend


calculus: an abnormal concretion, usually composed of mineral salts, occurring within the body, chiefly in hollow organs or their passages (also called a stone)

calmative: allaying irritability, excitement, or nervousness (see sedative)

cardio tonic: increases strength and tone (normal tension or response to stimuli) of the heart

carminative: causing the release of stomach or intestinal gas

catarrhal: pertaining to the inflammation of mucous membranes of the head and throat

cathartic: an active purgative, producing bowel movements

cephalic: pertaining to the head, or to the head end of the body

cholagogue: promoting an increased flow of bile Cholagogue herbs include barberry, gentian, mugwort, rosemary, sage, wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), wild indigo, wormwood, yellow dock

choleretic: promoting bile secretion by the liver Choleretics include wormwood, turmeric, triphala, boneset, gentian, barberry, oregon grape, and artichoke

cicatrizant: aiding formation of scar tissue and healing wounds

complementary medicine: the treatment, alleviation, or prevention of disease by such techniques as osteopathy, homeopathy, aromatherapy, and acupuncture, allied with attention to such factors as diet and emotional stability, which can affect a person’s wellbeing. If a non-mainstream practice is used together with conventional medicine, it is considered?”complementary.”

compress: used the same way as a poultice, but usually warm liquids are applied to the cloth instead of raw substances

counter-irritant agent producing an inflammatory response for affecting an adjacent area

cortex: refers to the bark of the plant. Bark can be collected from the root, stem, or branches

crude drug: natural products, which are not pure compounds (i.e., plants or parts of plants, extracts, or exudes)


decoction: a tea made from boiling plant material, usually the bark, rhizomes, roots or other woody parts, in water. May be used therapeutically. Natural dyes are often made this way

demulcent: soothing action on inflammation, especially of mucous membranes
note: an emollient is generally referred to use externally, used internally, an emollient is referred to as a demulcent. Emollient/demulcent herbs include marshmallow root, comfrey root and leaf, and slippery elm bark

dermatitis: inflammation of the skin evidenced my itchiness, redness, and various lesions

diaphoretic: helps to promote perspiration by stimulating peripheral circulation (syn: sudorific)

digestive: supports digestion

diuretic: increases urine flow

drug: a pure substance or combination of pure substances (isolated from natural sources, semi-sythenthic, or purely chemical in origin) intended to mitigate, treat, cure or prevent a disease in humans (and other animals).

dysmenorrhea: painful menstruation

dyspepsia: imperfect or painful digestion


ecbolic: tends to increase contractions of uterus, facilitating childbirth

ellagic acid is known for its antioxidant properties. That means it removes toxins from your body and protects against harmful molecules known as free radicals. Plants also produce this antioxidant compound as a defense mechanism against infection and pests

electuary: a mixture of powdered herbs and honey

emetic: produces vomiting

emmenagogue: agent that regulates and induces normal menstruation

emollient: softens and soothes irritated or inflamed skin, moisturizes and helps to replenish the skin’s natural oils
note: An emollient is generally referred to use externally, used internally, an emollient is referred to as a demulcent. Emollient/demulcent herbs include marshmallow root, comfrey root and leaf, and slippery elm bark

entheogenic: an entheogenic herb is a psychoactive substance that induces alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior for the purposes of engendering spiritual development in sacred contexts
note: “Entheogen” is a term coined in 1979 by R. Gordon Wasson, Jonathan Ott, Carl Ruck, and other of their colleagues to describe psychoactive drugs, usually of plant origin, that produce transcendent experiences and facilitate spiritual development. Etymologically, the word entheogen is derived from two Greek words: entheos (god, “theos,” within), and the root word –gen (the action of becoming). Thus, entheogen means literally “becoming the divine within.” [source]

enuresis: an involuntary discharge of urine : incontinence of urine

ergogenic: increasing capacity for body or mental labor especially by eliminating fatigue symptoms

errhine: bringing on sneezing, increasing flow of mucus in nasal passages

escharotic: caustic substance that destroys tissue and causes sloughing

essential oils: aromatic volatile oils extracted from the leaves, stems, flowers, and other parts of plants. Therapeutic use generally includes dilution of the highly concentrated oil

estrogenic: causes the production of estrogen

euphoriant: produces a sense of bodily comfort; temporary effect and often addictive

expectorant: facilitates removal of secretions


febrifuge: an agent that reduces or relieves a fever

flatulence: excessive gas in the stomach or intestine

flavonoid: Any of a large group of water-soluble plant pigments that are beneficial to health. Flavonoids are polyphenols and have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties. They also help to maintain the health of small blood vessels and connective tissue, and some are under study as possible treatments of cancer. Also called bioflavonoid

flos: refers to the flowers of plant usually consisting of a single flower or the entire inflorescences (i.e., head, umbel, panicle, spike, etc.).

folium: refers to the leaf of plant. Usually the middle leaves of plants are collected

folk medicine the traditional art of medicine as practiced among rustic communities and primitive peoples, consisting typically of the use of herbal remedies, fruits and vegetables thought to have healing power

fructus: refers to the fruit (the ripened ovary of the flower bearing seeds) or berry of the plant. In pharmacognosy, fructus is not always synonymous with the botanical definition.


galactagogue: an agent that promotes the flow of milk (syn: galactogenic)

glucosinolates: sulfuric compounds found in many pungent plants of the mustard family: the glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables, including broccoli and cabbage, are regarded as beneficial in promoting anti-oxidation and in regulating inflammation, stress, and metabolism.

gras: Generally Recognized As Safe


hemagogue: an agent that promotes the flow of blood

hemostatic: controls the flow or stops the flow of blood

herb: the word herb (sometimes referred to as botanical) has several different meanings depending on the perspective:

  • In commercial terms – herb generally refers to plants used for culinary purposes. Additionally the terminology differentiates Temperate Zone plants from tropical and sub-tropical plants (i.e., spices).
  • In horticultural terms – herb refers to “herbaceous,” which describes the appearance of the plant (i.e., a non-woody, vascular plant).
  • In taxonomic terms – herb generally refers to the above ground parts or the aerial parts (i.e., the flower, leaf, and stem).
  • In terms of herbal medicine – herb refers to plants used in various forms or preparations, valued for their therapeutic benefits, and sold as dietary supplements in the U.S. marketplace.

herba: refers to the aerial parts or the above ground parts of plants which may include the flower, leaf, and the stem of the plant, and occasionally fruits too

hepatic: having to do with the liver

hepatoprotective: the ability to prevent damage to the liver

herpetic: treating skin eruptions relating to the herpes virus

holistic medicine: identifying with principles of holism in a system of therapeutics, especially one considered outside the mainstream of scientific medicine, as naturopathy or chiropractic, and often involving nutritional measures: holistic medicine

homeopathy: system of medicine founded in the late 18th century in which remedies consist of diluted substances from plants, minerals and animals. It is based on a theory that “like cures like.” Remedies specifically match different symptom pattern profiles of illness to stimulate the body’s natural healing process.

hydrophobic: In chemistry, hydrophobic is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water. (Strictly speaking, there is no repulsive force involved; it is an absence of attraction.)

hypertensive: raises blood pressure

hypoglycemant: agent that lowers blood sugar

hypotensive: lowers blood pressure


indigenous or tribal medicine: healthcare system that tends to incorporate various methods of botanical and animal medicines as well as specific ceremonial rituals of the culture to cure disease. The medicinal knowledge is passed from generation to generation primarily through oral traditions. The system tends to be unique to each tribe.

indolent: not painful and slow to heal

infused oil: process of extraction in which the volatile oils of a plant substance are obtained by soaking the plant in a carrier oil for approximately two weeks and then straining the oil. The resulting oil is used therapeutically and may contain the plant’s aromatic characteristic.

infusion: a tea made by pouring water over plant material (usually dried flowers, fruit, leaves, and other parts, though fresh plant material may also be used), then allowed to steep. The water is usually boiling, but cold infusions are also an option. May be used therapeutically, as hot tea is an excellent way to administer herbs.

inflammation: a local response to cellular injury that is marked by capillary dilatation, leukocytic infiltration, redness, heat, and pain and that serves as a mechanism initiating the elimination of noxious agents and of damaged tissue

integumentary: the enveloping membrane of the body; includes, in addition to the epidermis and dermis, all the derivatives of the epidermis, for example, hairs, nails, sudoriferous and sebaceous glands, and mammary glands, as well as the subcutaneous tissue




lactifuge: reduces the flow of milk

laxative: substance that acts to loosen the bowels contents

lignum: refers to the wood or the secondary thickening of the stem. This may or may not contain the bark as well.

liniment: extract of a plant added to either alcohol or vinegar and applied topically to employ the therapeutic benefits

lymphagogue: an agent that promotes lymph production or lymph flow

lymphatic: as lymphatic herbs have an ability to move lymph and can increase lymphatic flow moving fluid and protein away from areas of inflammation so that fresh lymph (rich in oxygen and nutrients needed for tissue repair) can replace i.


masticatory:increases flow of saliva upon chewing

materia medica:from Latin and literally means “healing materials” More specifically, a materia medica is a body of knowledge that describes how plants have been used therapeutically throughout the ages. please refer to What is a Materia Medica?

metabolism: the processes (anabolism – building up and catabolism – tearing down) concerned with the distribution of the nutrients absorbed into the blood following digestion

  • retrograde metabolism – part of the catabolic, or destructive, phase of metabolism, where large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules to make energy available to the body

mucilage: an aqueous solution of a gummy substance, used as a vehicle or soothing agent (adj mucilaginous.) [3]

mucolytic: hydrolyzing glycosaminoglycans: tending to break down or lower the viscosity of mucin-containing body secretions or components OR denoting or pertaining to enzymes that break down mucus


narcotic: induces drowsiness, sleep, or stupor and lessons pain

naturopathy: A holistic medical system that treats health conditions by utilizing what is believed to be the body’s innate ability to heal. Naturopathic physicians aid healing processes by incorporating a variety of natural methods based on the patient’s individual needs.

nephrotoxicity toxicity in the kidneys… It is a poisonous effect of some substances, both toxic chemicals and medications, on kidney function. Nephrotoxins are substances displaying nephrotoxicity.

nervine: a nerve tonic

  • nervine relaxant – helps to calm tension and irritability in the nervous system
  • nervine stimulant – assists in stimulating the nervous system

neuralgia: severe sharp pain along the course of a nerve


oleum: refers to the fixed oil preparation pressed or squeezed from the plant material

ophthalmic (ocular) pertaining to the eye

oxymel: An oxymel is a honey-vinegar – the oldest of the drinks found in Medieval Persia, it is a syrup of honey, vinegar and herbs


parturient: relating to or in the process of childbirth

parturifacient: induces contractions of labor at childbirth

pectoral: pertaining to the chest

percolation:process to extract the soluble constituents of a plant with the assistance of gravity. The material is moistened and evenly packed into a tall, slightly conical vessel; the liquid (menstruum) is then poured onto the material and allowed to steep for a certain length of time. A small opening is then made in the bottom, which allows the extract to slowly flow out of the vessel. The remaining plant material (the marc) may be discarded. Many tinctures and liquid extracts are prepared this way.

pericarpium: refers to the peel or rind of fruit

poultice: therapeutic topical application of a soft moist mass of plant material (such as bruised fresh herbs), usually wrapped in a fine woven cloth

phenolic: often referred to as phenols or polyphenos, elements behind the red color of red wine, blueberries, elderberries, etc. It is an organic compound released by plants and animals as a part of their defense mechanisms with a central cyclic benzene ring and a varying number of hydroxyl groups as substituents.

pharmacognosy: the study of natural products (i.e., plant, animal, organism, or mineral in nature) used as drugs or for the preparation of drugs. Derived from the Greek pharmakon meaning drug and gnosis meaning knowledge.

phytochemicals: chemical compounds or chemical constituents formed in the plant’s normal metabolic processes. The chemicals are often referred to as “secondary metabolites” of which there are several classes including alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, fats, flavonoids, glycosides, gums, iridoids, mucilages, phenols, phytoestrogens, tannins, terpenes, and terpenoids, to mention a few. Extracts contain many chemical constituents, while chemicals that have been isolated from the plant are considered pharmaceutical drugs (i.e. digoxin having been isolated from the foxglove or Digitalis lanata plant).

phytomedicinals: medicinal substances that originate from plants. This may include certain phytochemicals as well as whole plants or herbal preparations.

phytonutrients: same as phytochemical, any of various bio-active chemical compounds found in plants, as antioxidants, considered to be beneficial to human health.

phytoestrogens: type of phytochemical with some influence on the estrogenic activity or hormonal system in humans – This rather broad term does not mean that the plant mimics human estrogen, only acts to affect it in some way.

polyphenol: a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semi-synthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units

polysaccharide: broadly refers to complex, long-chain carbohydrates that provide nutritive elements in the human diet, and may also possess anti-inflammatory and/or immunomodulatory properties, among other health benefits

potentiate: to cause to be potent; make powerful…to increase the effectiveness of; intensify

pyroleum: refers to the tar from dry distilled plant material

psychogenic: Greek, psyche + genein, to produce, originating within the mind as opposed to having a physical cause

purgative laxative, causes the evacuation of intestinal contents



radix: refers to the root of a plant, though radix is sometimes synonymous with rhizome

renal: pertaining to the kidney; called also nephric

resina: refers to the resin that is secreted by the plant or by distillation of the balsamum.

resorbent: aids re-absorption of blood from bruises

resveratrol: a compound found in red grapes, mulberries, peanuts, and certain plants, used medicinally as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory

rheumatism: a general term for acute or chronic conditions characterized by inflammation of the muscles and joints (includes arthritis, gout, bursitis, myositis, and fibromyositis)

rubefacient: agent which reddens skin, dilates the vessels, and increases blood supply locally

rhizoma: refers to the rhizome or a creeping horizontal stem, generally bearing roots on its underside


saponin: Any of various plant glucosides that form soapy lathers when mixed and agitated with water, used in detergents, foaming agents, and emulsifiers… from French saponine, from Latin sapo soap

scrofula: formerly tuberculosis, the terms “scrofulous,” “strumous,” and “tuberculous” being nearly interchangeable in the past, before the real nature of the disease was understood. The particular characteristics associated with scrofula have varied at different periods, but essentially what was meant was tuberculosis of the bones and lymphatic glands, especially in children. It is in this sense that the word survives.

sedative: exerts a soothing, tranquilizing effect on the body

semen: refers to the seed of a plant, usually removed from the fruit, and may or may not contain the seed coat

shrub: derived from the Arabic word sharab, means drink, is a zingy mixture of fruit, sugar and vinegar

sialagogue: an agent that stimulates the flow of saliva

sitz bath: A sitz bath is a warm, therapeutic bath used to heal and cleanse the area around the perineum (the space between the genitals and anus). It can be done in a bathtub, or you can purchase a round, shallow washbasin which fits snugly over a standard toilet seat

soporific: inducing sleep

specific: herbs that gently move or “adjust” a process in the body, whether it be hormonal, nervous or in immune function–they are catalysts or assisting remedies. These generally work by stimulating a process – one of the best examples here is echinacea, which stimulates immune cell function and thus confers heightened resistance to pathogenic influences (infections). The specific remedies are generally used only as needed, usually for up to 2 or 3 weeks at most.

stimulant: temporarily increases body or organ function

stomachic: aids the stomach and digestion action

sudorific: acts to increase perspiration

switchel: also called swizzle or haymakers punch, was commonly served to farm hands during the harvesting of hay. Molasses, ginger and vinegar were the usual combinations.

syrup: pleasant way for children or adults to take herbal medicine. The herbs are mixed with a sweet base, creating a palatable edible medicine.


tannin: an astringent, bitter plant polyphenolic compound (also known as vegetable tannin, natural organic tannins or sometimes tannoid, i.e. a type of biomolecule, as opposed to modern synthetic tannin) group of phenol compounds found in plants, which create a group of chemicals called “Polyphenols”. These polyphenols are, for the most part, soluble in water. The astringency of tannin is what causes that dry and puckery feeling in the mouth after you bite into unripened fruit.

tannic acid: tannic acid is a specific type of tannin (plant polyphenol), the two terms are sometimes (incorrectly) used interchangeably. The long standing misuse of the terms, and its inclusion in scholarly articles has compounded the confusion. This is particularly widespread in relation to green tea and black tea, both of which contain tannin but not tannic acid.

thermal stability: referring on this site to an oil that does not oxidize readily when heated

tincture: extract of a plant made by soaking herbs in a dark place with a desired amount of either glycerine, alcohol, or vinegar for two to six weeks. The liquid is strained from the plant material and then may be used therapeutically.

tisane: an infusion of dried or fresh leaves or flowers – Tea, scientifically known as Camellia sinensis, is a sub-tropical green plant native to Asia, but now grown the world over. Tea contains three significant compounds – polyphenols, essential oils, and caffeine. It’s a very common beverage and can be brewed with a tea bag or a strainer. There are several varieties of tea, but they all come from the same plant. The difference comes in the way the tea leaves are processed. Unlike tisane which is made from herbs (roots, leaves, flowers) of various plants, tea is made from tea leaves.

tonic: pertaining to, maintaining, increasing, or restoring the tone or health of the body or an organ – The word”tonic” is traditionally defined as something that should be restorative and invigorating to one’s health.

torpid: mentally or physically inactive; lethargic

traditional chinese medicine: (TCM) A 3,000year old holistic system of medicine combining the use of medicinal herbs, acupuncture, food therapy, massage, and therapeutic exercise. Chinese physicians look for the underlying causes of imbalance in the “yin” and “yang” which lead to disharmony in the “qi” energy in the body. Traditional Chinese Medicine addresses how illness manifests itself in a patient and treats the patient, not the ailment or disease.

trophorestorative nourishes and restores balance to the body – Trophorestorative herbs typically have a strong affinity for an organ or organ system and correct deficiency and weakness not only through temporary stimulation but by deeply nourishing that organ or organ system.


urtication: sensation of having been stung by nettles (an older practice of flogging a paralyzed limb or part with nettles, for the stimulating effect)


vermifugal: destructive to parasitic worms; called also anti-helmintic

volatile oil: substance contained in a plant and containing the principles to which the odor and taste of the plant are due (essential oil); in contrast to a fatty oil, a volatile oil evaporates when exposed to the air and so is capable of distillation; it may also be obtained by expression or extraction

vulnerary: herb/herbs used to promote the healing of wounds
Plantain, calendula, comfrey, chickweed, lavender, marshmallow, St. John’s wort, tulsi aloe, and yarrow are considered vulnerary

zoonotic: disease that can be transmitted from animals to people or, more specifically, a disease that normally exists in animals but that can infect humans





herbal definitions

Works Cited:

  • [1] American Botanical Council
  • [2] David Winston RH (AHG) http://www.herbaltherapeutics.net
  • [3] botanical info on mucilage
  • Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. 2003. Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc 17 Dec. 2016
  • Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary. 2012. Farlex 17 Dec. 2016
  • Dorland’s Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. 2007. Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc 17 Dec. 2016
  • Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing. 2012. Farlex 17 Dec. 2016
  • Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 3 ed.. 2007. Elsevier, Inc. 17 Dec. 2016